Should that occur, we have the ultimate instrument in our hands: we can refuse to purchase their commercially produced marijuana and simply grow our own. Without the right to cultivate for personal use, consumers could end up with poor choices, poor marijuana, and no real alternatives. He was arrested by the Feds in for managing a nursery that supplied medical patients with starter plants in Oakland, California. He and the city attorney thought he was legally cultivating medical marijuana as an officer of the City of Oakland.
Ed faced a possible year mandatory minimum prison sentence; he refused to discuss a plea agreement. While that strategy might have seemed risky, in the end his courage was rewarded by the judge, who said Ed had justifiably relied on his status with the city, and sentenced him to only one day in jail, with credit for time already served. Ed had survived the best shot the Feds could take, and he is still standing. Ed Rosenthal is the best-known cultivation expert in America. He has written more than a dozen books on the topic; he is politically active and testifies as an expert in state and federal criminal cases.
Over the years, Ed and I have developed a friendship based on mutual respect, and we stay in touch and see each other several times a year at marijuana-related events in different parts of the country. The friendship is largely based on our common appreciation and enjoyment of marijuana, and our shared belief in the importance of making it legal.
I am delighted to give my thanks to Ed Rosenthal for leading the home-grown consumer movement in America, and for bringing us all closer to full marijuana legalization. Keith Stroup, Esq. More tomatoes are grown in America by home gardeners than are produced commercially. Yet there is a robust commercial market for tomatoes and tomato products of all types: canned, vine-ripened, organic, sauces, soups, ketchup, etc. Marijuana could be handled in the same way. Commercial growers can thrive side-by-side with home and specialty cultivators.
The momentum for change has become unstoppable, but the legalization movement has been pushing for reform for nearly 50 years. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has. Mead was one of the first world-famous women to espouse legalization of marijuana, but the early days of the movement were quite male-dominated.
My account focuses on the first stages of reform, especially in California. His lawyer, James R. Neal served two years in San Quentin for that, and Allen Ginsberg was infuriated. Burroughs, and Randy Wicker, who ran a little head shop in the East Village. It made TIME magazine and linked us up with the world. The universal fear of dope back then was so great that one would not talk openly in a bus The multiple uses of the plant for medicine and fiber were forgotten.
LEMAR hoped to correct that. This compendium of historic articles, along with such books as Pot: A Handbook of Marihuana, The Book of Grass, and 1 in 7: Drugs on Campus all contributed to public consciousness expansion. LEMAR groups sprang up across the country. The Detroit chapter became the most vital chapter in the Midwest, thanks to the organizing of John Sinclair, the brilliant poet and bluesman, and his wife Leni, a great music photographer. Once again, the idea was to control our own media, publish our own understanding, and get the word out.
A psychiatrist by training, he was something of an expert on cultivation as well as medicine, tramping off to Morocco to study kif cultivation in the Rif Mountains for his book Economic Botany. Not only was he one of the few who had actually read the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission report of , he had just had them republished. A few years later, his Marijuana Medical Papers would bring together the best articles in English about medical marijuana.
As his hero, Dr. Mikuriya re-introduced cannabis therapeutics to modern medicine. Why not, he had proposed then, fund the marijuana movement by selling hemp products? We ran with the idea, and in set up Amorphia, The Cannabis Co-op—a nonprofit organization that manufactured and marketed hemp-rolling papers. Because hemp cultivation was illegal in the U. Amorphia sold Acapulco Gold rolling papers made from rice, maize, chocolate, and hemp , with all the proceeds devoted to legalization, including funding the California Marijuana Initiative.
Amorphia emphasized cultivation for personal use as part of any legalization plan, and we liked the idea of using grassroots political activism, including voter initiatives, to achieve our goals. IN , a bold young attorney named R. One of the main differences between Amorphia and NORML was that Stroup preferred a more traditional legislative approach to reform, working with politicians and suits rather than hippies, and hated initiatives because he was sure they would fail.
The time was right for both groups, because the U. This new scheme created a system of schedules for dangerous drugs, with penalties dependent on which schedule the drug was in, but gave the U. Marijuana, Mitchell decided, would go in Schedule I along with heroin, instead of Schedule II or III for drugs with recognized medical uses, such as cocaine and amphetamines. Pot was officially the drug of hippies, not doctors.
Nixon appointed seven of its 13 members, including its chairman, Raymond Shafer, the former governor of Pennsylvania who was then a national Republican Party leader. In a taped Oval Office conversation with his chief of staff, H. What the Christ is the matter with the Jews, Bob, what is the matter with them? We are going to hit the marijuana thing, and I want to hit it right square in the puss. With impetus from Foster City attorney Leo Paoli, we came up with an initiative that emphasized cultivation for personal use.
CMI was succinct, easily understandable, and appealing to volunteers. It was the first time marijuana law reform was on the ballot anywhere in the world. It was the first time that sales of hemp paper funded an initiative. And it was the last time that a California initiative campaign was run entirely by volunteers, instead of paid signature gatherers. The marijuana movement grew from a handful of activists to a state full of supporters.
Ed Rosenthal moved to San Francisco in He shared our vision of cultivation as the key to legalization and toured California encouraging growers to support the initiative, and offering advice to improve their crops. We took word of the campaign The marijuana movement grew from a handful of activists to a state full of supporters. In , Milk won a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors and became the first openly gay American to be elected to public office.
How to Grow Cannabis in 10 Easy Steps
Following that, Councilwoman Loni Hancock—who would later become mayor and serve in the state Assembly and Senate—sponsored a local ballot measure directing police to give lowest priority to marijuana law enforcement and to make no arrests for cultivation, possession or use. We were growing it in the U. Sinsemilla farms, indoor hydroponics included, spread throughout the U. He researched the history of hemp for more than a decade, and in published the first edition of The Emperor Wears No Clothes Herer It has gone through many editions and may be the most popular hemp book of all time.
In the s, Jack was also attempting to remedy the problem of federal prohibition with a series of initiatives in Oregon and California to legalize hemp cultivation for all purposes, though none made the ballot. Living in Washington, D. Bob pursued his medical necessity claim through the courts, and in became the first American in 40 years to gain legal access to marijuana for medical purposes.
But where to get it? Would you believe free marijuana from the Feds?! The new mayor, Dianne Feinstein, now a U. Senator, refused to implement Proposition W. He never forgot the power of the initiative, and in he helped develop the wording and started the petition drive to put the Compassionate Use Act, Proposition , on the California state ballot. Since then, many other states have followed suit. This further legitimized the hundreds of medical cannabis dispensaries and cultivation collectives already operating in California under local ordinance.
Sentencing Commission had helped change the federal sentencing guidelines, resulting in shorter sentences for people convicted of cultivating marijuana and the release of an estimated federal marijuana prisoners. MPP worked to pass a medical marijuana initiative in Washington, D. That success was repeated in Maryland in when four years of lobbying resulted in the Republican governor signing legislation to reduce penalties for medical marijuana use.
In , litigation MPP funded established that state privacy protections that meant Alaskans 21 years or over may legally possess up to four ounces of marijuana in their homes. That same year, MPP helped pass a medical marijuana ballot initiative in Nevada and in it was instrumental in the passage of a medical marijuana initiative in Michigan. MPP continues to lobby for medical marijuana bills and legislation to end marijuana prohibition.
In the early morning hours of February 12, , federal agents began a series of coordinated raids on a San Francisco medical marijuana collective and the homes and businesses of the handful of people who were supplying it with medicine. But the Feds misjudged both their target and the patient community. Not only was Asa Hutchison shouted down by patient advocates at his speech, but the actions of his agents galvanized a grassroots response of patients. The acronym was not a coincidence. As a grassroots organization of patients and activists, ASA began with protests around the trial of Ed Rosenthal in late and early One day, dozens of protestors stood motionless in rows with duct-taped mouths and medical placards, a silent demonstration of all that the jury was not being allowed to hear.
This led to the first jury revolt in a federal medical cannabis trial, with the majority of the panel appearing on CNN, Dateline and elsewhere to denounce the Rosenthal trial as a miscarriage of justice. Based in Oakland, California with a national lobbying office in Washington, D. ASA provides legal training and medical information, as well as court support and rapid response to law-enforcement raids. The ASA legal team has made a big impact, winning a suit against California Highway Patrol to make them comply with state medical cannabis law.
Other landmark cases have helped establish the rights of patient collectives to organize in the state. ASA is also working closely with federal policy makers to remove barriers to research and establish protections for patients everywhere in the country. The Truth in Trials Act, which would give patients a medical defense in federal trials, has been a key piece of that legislative effort. ASA has also worked closely with state lawmakers in California and elsewhere to expand patient protections. Over the last six years, ASA has become a respected voice for medical cannabis patients.
This tax-exempt c 3 organization was formed by activists and allies as a way of rallying support and directing resources to the legal defense of critical, tipping-point medical cannabis cases. ORG tional television and radio coverage and more than published articles internationally, including front-page stories and sympathetic editorials in the New York Times, San Francisco Chronicle, Oakland Tribune, and San Francisco Examiner. Green Aid was also instrumental in helping Ed mount a successful appeal of his conviction and fight a now-expanded federal retrial in Today, Green Aid continues to assist with the legal defenses of prominent medical cannabis cases.
Supreme Court in , but they shot him down. Then one of the patients he was supplying, Angel Raich and her attorney, Rob Raich, took her medical necessity defense to the high court, but they also ruled against her. Nonetheless, these two cases helped galvanize public opinion in favor of medical marijuana legalization. The main Oakland campus has become a focal point for both education and activism on marijuana. Thousands of articles have been written.
Millions of people grow marijuana. Many decriminalization reforms have been passed by legislatures, but none have legalized cultivation for all. Omitting the underlying question of supply impedes all the modern laws attempting to regulate marijuana. Almost three decades ago, the International Cannabis Alliance for Reform met in Amsterdam to consider legalization plans and proposals, and came to the same conclusion.
At a minimum, everyone should have the right to grow cannabis for personal use. This is the cornerstone of legalization, because it allows the consumer to opt out of the underground market. The personal right to cultivate cannabis is the crux of any successful legalization scheme. In California, at least, medical patients have the right to free, legal, backyard marijuana. The tipping point will have been reached when everyone has that right. W hy grow marijuana? The reasons can be many, and varied. Perhaps you have never considered growing marijuana.
Or, perhaps, you never tried because it felt like a difficult, risky undertaking. You may have even tried your hand at raising a young plant or two but abandoned the project when the plants failed to thrive or were overcome with mold or pests. Despite any potential pitfalls, there are many compelling reasons to embark on this journey. Also, many medical cannabis patients understandably prefer to have the control over their medicine that a personal garden allows, with the knowledge that it is grown safely and organically.
As a plant, cannabis is similar to any other plant—it likes light, water, nutrients, and human attention. Yet it has some unique characteristics and a long history of interaction with the human species. Time, observation, and research have taught us the best ways to care for marijuana to achieve big, beautiful buds and amazing harvests. Any effort you make to learn how to cultivate this fascinating plant will be well rewarded, and this book will help demystify the process. The most powerful reason to grow marijuana, in my experience, is the enjoyment and satisfaction that comes from forming a personal relationship with this fascinating plant.
Whether you are a beginner or an experienced grower, this book provides the information to help you grow a garden that will provide you good harvests, enjoyment, and an enriching pastime. Most gardeners, myself included, have an anthropomorphic attachment to marijuana. They name their plants, develop a fondness for one or the other. The best part of gardening is that at the end of the journey you will harvest some of the best buds you have ever smoked, all ripened to perfection.
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If you are living in a state where it is legal for medical marijuana patients or suppliers to grow, then you will have a different attitude about growing than someone who lives in the majority of states and countries where marijuana is illegal to use or grow. Before you start to plan a garden you should have a clear understanding of the laws regarding cultivation of marijuana.
With this information you can make a realistic assessment of the situation and decide whether gardening is for you. You should also begin to make contingency plans based on worst-case scenarios. In states where medical patients are allowed to grow marijuana there are often strict limits on the number of plants or the amount of space that can be devoted to the garden. Marijuana cultivation is often considered a serious offense so it is imperative to take precautions to keep yourself free.
Some questions you might ask yourself before you commence this venture are: Am I willing to take on the responsibilities and risks? Can I afford a legal quagmire? How do my roommates feel about it? Do I really have a secure area? People who snitch to get out of trouble also appears in the statistics. It pays then, for marijuana growers to become nicer people than they might otherwise be. Treat your friends better. Be nice and helpful to your neighbors.
Let the harried driver cut in. Develop a broader perspective on life. Marijuana Growers Handbook Website—www. This book provides what is most necessary and relevant to your growing success. Fortunately, the Internet has provided us a way to make even more information available to you. At www. As changes occur in equipment and methods the website will keep the book, and you, up to date on the latest developments. LEE, Ph.
D and D. SUN, Ph. The study of cannabinoids has focused mainly on the brain, so first let us consider the cerebral effects of cannabis, starting with the obvious. Marijuana influences mental perception. Sometimes they can feel stupefying, like a sacrifice of chronology and mental dialogue, or an impaired ability to follow conversation.
Shortterm memory can be interrupted and spatial orientation impaired, effects which can give way to a heightened sensory perception of the here and now. It can help you feel momentarily less concerned about societal and interpersonal pressures. These properties have been portrayed from opposing perspectives: as good or bad, uplifting or unsettling, habitforming or not, anxiety relieving or promoting. Likewise, while exceedingly few people who experiment with marijuana develop a dependency, it does happen. These matters are complex and frequently oversimplified, but it is important to recognize that even if cannabis is kind to a great many people, it does not mean it is for everyone.
The various promises and warnings about how marijuana affects the brain are rooted in genuine human experiences. For instance, millions of people lose quality of life to chronic pain. While scientists and physicians continue to get a better grasp of what physical pain is, doctors readily acknowledge that current prescription medications are fraught with side effects and do not work on all types of pain, particularly the neuropathic pain that can result from nerve injury and disease.
Thanks to modern medical marijuana initiatives and biomedical research, including an increasing number of goldstandard, randomized double-blind clinical trials using botanical cannabis and extracts, this ancient remedy can once again be discussed without apology. Not only does cannabis relieve pain on its own, it works in concert with other analgesics to improve their efficacy. It is appalling that a patient struggling for survival should have to risk their freedom for choosing marijuana as their medicine. The diversity of physiological effects generated by marijuana is due to the many different cell and tissue types that express cannabinoid receptors.
Various areas of the brain and other nervous system tissues contain cannabinoid receptors called CB1. The neurological effects of marijuana depend on the particular brain areas and networks these cannabinoid-sensitive cells participate in for example, the neuronal networks mediating short-term memory, anxiety, or compulsive behavior. The location of the receptors on the cell can alter how they operate. Most mental and perceptual effects of cannabis can be attributed to CB1 receptor activation. A second receptor, called CB2, has been identified primarily in certain cells of the immune system.
How do we know such things? It is more accurate to lowing scientists to see say that the cannabis plant which neurons in the brain evolved to produce comare sensitive to THC. Marijuana provides anandamide a Some of the only retherapeutic benefits across name derived gions of the brain where from ananda, CB1 receptors are aba startlingly broad range the Sanskrit sent are areas controlof conditions and has an ling vital functions such unparalleled record of safety.
This is why cannabis poses no risk of fatal re- for 2-arachidonylglycerol , each is generatspiratory depression that can occur with ed in cells by specific enzymes in response overdoses of opiates and other nervous to activation signals. In the brain, for example, if one neuron electrical cell of the brain barrages another neuron with excitatory electrical The natural physiological chemicals activity, the target neuron may respond that drive CB1 and CB2 receptors are a by generating and releasing eCBs from its family of molecules present not just in cellular membrane.
Through the molecular signaling of these strategically located CB1 receptors, the release of other, more principal neurotransmitters is momentarily paused. This process, where synaptic connections between neurons are weakened or strengthened, is referred to as synaptic plasticity, a mechanism by which learning and memory occurs at the cellular level.
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The feedback mechanism of eCB-mediated synaptic plasticity is important not just for computational processes how we think and feel and learn , but as a matter of cellular survival; too much excitation is deadly to cells. Yet this is only half the story. The eCBs also work the opposite way, releasing the neuron to fire more freely, a process called disinhibition. This is another way that eCB-mediated Large-scale population studies have failed to find any link between cannabis smoking and lung cancer or other respiratory ailments.
In a brain area called the amygdala, eCBs purge the memory of fearful experiences, helping an individual move past emotional trauma. This action helps explain the apparent utility of cannabinoids including herbal cannabis as a treatment for some cases of post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD. By contrast, in the area called the hippocampus, tightly controlled eCB signaling allows cells to fire in coordinated synchrony, setting up the brain rhythms that are important for orienting oneself in physical space. Marijuana is thought to interrupt spatial memory by simultaneously flooding all the cells in this rhythmic engine with THC…um, where did I put that pen that was just in my hand?
Both of these are physiological actions that contribute to normal brain function. The fact that CB1 receptors can orchestrate the tempo of brain cells in either direction— faster or slower—surely helps to explain how cannabis can have such wide ranging, even opposite, perceived effects in different individuals and circumstances. The story of eCBs is not just about the brain, though.
Important therapeutic properties of cannabinoids are mediated by the CB2 receptors on immune cells. Immune cells promote inflammation during the course of fighting an infection, an im- portant adaptive property; however this action also can be a source of pain, tissue damage, and an obstacle to healing and well-being. Activation of CB2 receptors throughout the body including the brain, where immune cells are called microglia , either by eCBs or the cannabinoids in marijuana, tells the immune cells to slow down releasing the chemicals that trigger inflammation.
This effect is directly analogous to what we described for the brain, where eCBs serve as a brake to the release of neurotransmitters. Clinically, the need to control swelling, itching, and pain is the reason why corticosteroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs are such widely used medicines. Recent research findings suggest that cannabinoids may be especially promising in reducing dangers of chronic inflammation in the brain, which is believed key The cannabinoid system appears to be primordial, since it exists in nearly all species of animals so far investigated, even very simple ones like microscopic hydra.
The immune modulating effects of cannabinoids also appear to hold promise for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as diabetes and multiple sclerosis. These studies clearly show that the effects can be variable and difficult to predict with precision, but marijuana provides therapeutic benefits across a startlingly broad range of conditions and has an unparalleled record of safety. Cannabis is used by inhalation smoking or vaporization , ingestion eating, drinking, or absorption through the mucus membranes of the mouth or, more rarely, topical application rubbing into the skin.
Inhalation is a considerably more rapid and efficient delivery method than ingestion, since the cannabinoids, terpenes and other chemicals pass readily across the lining of the lungs straight into the bloodstream. The effects and quality of the high are also somewhat different. Vaporization or ingestion is safer for the respiratory tract than smoking and creates a far less telltale odor. Burning cannabis or just about anything else for that matter creates harmful chemicals, known as reactive oxygen species, that may damage the mouth, throat, and lungs.
However, heating cannabis in a controlled manner to a temperature just below ignition of the plant material releases the lighter chemicals including the cannabinoids without actually burning anything or creating the reactive chemicals found in smoke. Vaporization may also provide a differ- ent quality of high, since it may produce a different mixture of volatilized compounds.
Interestingly, though prolonged smoking has been shown to damage the lungs and bronchial tubes, large-scale population studies have failed to find any link between cannabis smoking and lung cancer or other respiratory ailments. Since the cannabinoids THC and cannabidiol CBD have both been shown to have cancer-fighting properties, scientists speculate that cannabinoids may have a prophylactic effect against damage that the tars and other potentially harmful chemicals present in cannabis smoke would otherwise cause.
As rapid as the onset of effects is when cannabis is inhaled, it is slow when eaten. When cannabis products are ingested, the cannabinoids pass first through the stomach then are absorbed across the lining of the intestines into the blood, which passes through the liver and changes most of the THC into hydroxy-THC. While hydroxy-THC is also psychoactive, it may create a different kind of high. Serious scientific studies have attempted to determine what factors affect how much THC is absorbed from a joint. Another study found that the second half of the joint delivers more THC than the first half.
Clearly, more research is needed on the question of how long to hold each hit so get to work! However, there is now a solid scientific basis for the practice of letting your buddies start a joint and getting your first hit after it comes back around to you. The physiological workings of cannabis include some effects that we recognize as getting high, others that are medically beneficial, and some that are both.
As Michael Pollan decreased appetite, decreased activity of the scribes in his book The Botany of Desire, intestines and decreased nausea, red eyes, the human-cannabinoid interaction has dry mouth, analgesia pain relief , and de- given marijuana an evolutionary survival advantage persuading humans creased muscle spasms.
She makes my heart sing. However, cannabinoids and the refor updates and more info ceptors that absorb them are notand there justinfo for updates more or updates and more info for humans to be able to get high. The cannabinoid system appears to be primordial, since it exists in nearly all species of animals so far investigated, even very simple ones like microscopicfor hydra. Many plants make substances that have biological effects in animals; humans have taken advantage of this to develop drugs derived from these substances, including morphine from poppies, aspirin from willow bark, and cancer drugs from periwinkle, to name a few.
The use of cannabis and its products spread quickly throughout the world and is now cultivated in climatic zones from the Arctic to the equator. Cannabis evolved on its own for hundreds of thousands of generations, but since its properties were discovered by humans, it has been bred intensively to optimize particular characteristics.
Cannabis fiber, produced from the stalks of the plant, is used to make tough cloth, paper, and rope. Though all cannabis plants are of the same species, the varieties typically cultivated for their seeds or fiber are known as hemp. The third product, the flower and the resin that coats them, is used therapeutically and recreationally. Cannabis resin contains the group of substances collectively known as cannabinoids, of which Tetra-hydro-cannabinol, usually referred to as THC, is the chief psychoactive component.
THC and the other 87 identified cannabinoids are unique to cannabis. No other plant produces them, although frankincense and cocoa may contain small amounts of compounds that bind to some of the same receptors. Plants grown for their THC content are commonly called marijuana. The many uses of this multi-faceted plant have historically made it a valuable crop, and today there are collectively more breeding programs for marijuana than any other crop.
As the U. Gardeners who take this path join an international breeding program as soon as they transfer some of their genetics i. In the 40 years of this modern cannabis breeding program, growers have developed diverse varieties and cultivation methods that are quite efficient at producing the desired product: large, dense buds of sinsemilla—that is, a profusion of unpollinated female flowers. Each variety flourishes best under particular environmental conditions.
For the most part, potency is a factor of genetics. Some plants have the genetic potential of producing high-grade marijuana and others do not. Marijuana is usually dioecious; i. Occasionally monoecious plants, or hermaphrodites, appear and produce both male and female flowers. Such hermaphroditic plants are most common among some varieties native to south Asia, but can also result from environmental stress such as inadequate light or nutrition.
Because they fertilize females just as a true male plant does, they are considered undesirable and are removed from the garden as soon as they appear. Marijuana grown in the wild or with traditional methods outdoors has an annual cycle that begins with germination in the early spring. The plant grows vigorously for several months as the days lengthen and begins to flower when it reaches a critical time period in late summer or early fall.
In nature, marijuana is a fast-growing annual plant, although some varieties in warm areas over-winter, going dormant as the days shorten and then returning to flowering the next summer. Marijuana does best in a well-drained, high-nutrient planting medium and requires long periods of bright, unobstructed light daily. All varieties set seed in the fall as a result of changes in the weather—the seeds drop as the plant dies. When growing indoors and in greenhouses, the cultivator has complete control of the environment.
The grower determines when the plants are started and when they flower. This book is about how to produce the best marijuana under controlled conditions, whether indoors, in the greenhouse, or even outdoors. The word cannabis is an ancient one, dating back past Latin and Greek to Thracian or Scythian times. As the contemporary name of a type of plant, Cannabis Sativa Linnaeus L. Linnaeas, who devised the modern system for classifying and naming species, concluded that the genus Cannabis sativa had but one species, which bears the same botanical name.
The genus is currently classified as belonging to the Cannabaceae family, which also includes hops Humulus sp. Modern phylogenetic studies and gene sequencing indicate that Cannabis sativa L. This would not be the first time that Cannabis sativa L. There has been a similar evolution of thinking on how many species of Cannabis sativa L.
In , soon after Linnaeus identified it as a single species, the influential biologist JeanBaptiste de Lamarck claimed the plant he found in India should be classified as a separate species, which he named Cannabis indica. This name would be included in various pharmacopoeias to designate cannabis plants that are suitable for the manufacture of medicinal preparations.
In the 19th century, other botanists proposed separate species classifications for cannabis plants indigenous to China and Vietnam. But by the 20th century, difficulty with definitively distinguishing between any of them had led most botanists to conclude, as Linnaeus did, that all cannabis plants belong to a single species. Certainly all cannabis plants satisfy one of the chief criteria of a species: they can interbreed. There are different ways to define a species. Cannabis ruderalis is probably the progenitor wild variety.
The alleles or genetic traits of ruderlis are mostly dominant, indicating that the competing traits 2 3 4 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 1. Male flower bract 2. Female flower bract 3. Male flower 4. Bunch of male flowers 5. Unfertilized female flower 6. Maturing seed Mature seed in perianth Mature seed The leaves have serrated leaflets. The first pair of leaves usually have a single leaflet, the number gradually increasing up to a maximum of about thirteen leaflets per leaf usually seven or nine , depending on variety and growing conditions.
At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf. The lower leaf pairs usually occur in an opposite leaf arrangement and the upper leaf pairs in an alternate arrangement on the main stem of a mature plant. Cannabis normally has imperfect flowers, with staminate "male" and pistillate "female" flowers occurring on separate plants.
Occasionally, individual plants bear both male and female flowers. Although monoecious plants are often referred to as "hermaphrodites," true hermaphrodites which are less common bear staminate and pistillate structures on individual flowers, whereas monoecious plants bear male and female flowers at different locations on the same plant. Cannabis is wind-pollinated and produces "seeds" that are technically called achenes.
Most strains of Cannabis are short day plants, with the possible exception of C. Polyploid individuals have been artificially produced. Cannabis plants produce a group of chemicals called cannabinoids, which are secreted by glandular trichomes that occur most abundantly on the floral calyxes and bracts of female plants. For instance, flowering in ruderalis begins soon after germination and is not dependent on the length of daylight; this characteristic dominates crosses. The stems grow to a height between from 3'' 0. South of the foothills, cannabis cultivation is practiced throughout India and Southeast Asia.
Since there are no laws prohibiting it in Antarctica where researchers from many countries work, it is safe to assume that cannabis has spread its roots there, too. Cannabis sativa L. Also unusual is the fact that cannabis is an annual yet its closest botanical relative, hops, is a perennial.
The palmate leaves can range from a spread of a few inches approx 5cm to more than a foot, while the five to seven sharply serrated leaflets vary from long and thin to broad and stubby. The range of characteristics that selective breeding can produce is astonishing. The terrific subtleties of this plant allow gardeners with different goals to strive for their ideal plant.
Marijuana enthusiasts have the pleasure of exploring the myriad effects, flavors, and odors that these varieties have to offer.
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We often hear that varieties of marijuana have different tastes and highs because they contain varying ratios of can- psychoactive qualities of THC. And some studies have indicated that CBD may affect THC uptake in such a way as to reduce some negative psychological effects, such as anxiety. While the high is what most users notice, marijuana can have many other effects. Researchers have determined that the human body has a second type of cannabinoid receptor, named CB2, to which CBD binds. As a result, they have amassed other defenses against predators and competitors.
One of their main strategies is chemical warfare. They produce oils and other chemicals designed to repel enemies. Others kill, sicken, delay maturation or affect their metabolism. THC and the terpenes were developed as part of this arsenal. For example, clinical trials on pain control indicate that a mix of THC and CBD produce the best analgesic effect.
Much research remains to be done on the immune-modulating functions and other possible therapeutic applications of cannabinoids, including their possible role in fighting cancer tumors and control- TERPENES If cannabinoids, other than THC, are not contributing to the high, then we look at other ingredients in the smoke-stream. Terpenes are major components of marijuana resin, just as they make up the largest percentage of aromatic essential oils contained in most plants. The scent of most flowers, herbs and spices are composed of these oils.
When therapists use plant oils in aromatherapy, or when you use natural incense, perfume, or other scent to set the mood, you are inhaling various combinations of terpenes. They have the power to take you up or down, help you relax or focus, feel anxious or satisfied.
You recognize the presence of terpenes when you pinch that bud and take a whiff. Grapefruit, Silver Haze, Blueberry, Real Skunk—each of these odors brings a recognition of the type of high that the sample will explode into your brain. Before flowering, the odors are faint. As flowering progresses and the plant is more invested in protecting it, the odor grows.
As the bud ripens, whether seeded or sin- By temporarily altering brain function, terpenes affect mood, sensitivity, and perceptions, including balance and pain. This indicates that the odors deter animals that would eat the plant, including larger browsers. Chemically speaking, terpenes are composed of repeating units of isoprene, which is a five-carbon unit chain or ring with eight hydrogen atoms attached C5H8.
Terpenes use the simple isoprene units as blocks to build molecules with 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 carbon units; they also twist and turn the molecular structure to form simple chains or three-dimensional polycyclic structures. In addition, terpenes can form bonds with other molecules which affect how animals and plants react to them.see url
Marijuana Horticulture: The Indoor/Outdoor Medical Grower's Bible
You should still be setting a realistic budget and timeline for completion. When you find a location facing sunlight, you can cut down on costs of electric lighting. However, should artificial lighting still need to be part of your setup, your greenhouse should ideally be outfitted to benefit from both sources of light. A marijuana plant typically requires 7. Work out how much space you need, alongside storage space for equipment, working tables, water supply, and so forth.
Find a space somewhere that you can easily access. Don't make it easy for others to get in. Think about security for your greenhouse ahead of time. Your translucent covering will distribute an even amount of light. It can even be blacked out for 12 hours a day if you want to retain the split of indoor cultivation. Glass is heavy, expensive, and fragile compared to say, fibreglass or plastics.
These lighter materials come in translucent grades that distribute heat just as effectively as glass. You should give the greenhouse a new coat of protective resin every 10 to 15 years. There are also certain paints that will block the outside world's view inside your greenhouse. Make sure trees aren't obstructing your light source, unless it's evening sun in the summertime.
There are some hot days in summer where your plants could do with some shade in the afternoon. Speaking of heat Another advantage of greenhouses is the control they grant you over the temperature of your growing conditions. With direct sunlight, your plants can still grow in winter months as greenhouses are great for retaining heat when the weather turns cold. After all, capturing humidity in a greenhouse reduces your need for water. There are times, however, when the evaporation could lead to too much heat.
You should be able to cool your greenhouse with a vent. Many greenhouse designs incorporate a mechanical vent. Depending on your hydroponics system, you could also have a plastic tubing setup that allows you to spray cooling water mists for extended periods. Gandalf's wise words should be heeded; "Keep it secret. Keep it safe".
The entrance to your greenhouse should be secure. If possible, the greenhouse should be hidden from public view. You want to grow marijuana discreetly, hence, you're covering it with a greenhouse. Maybe the laws where you live aren't kind to cannabis cultivators, so be very careful. Even in jurisdictions where there's some form of decriminalisation or legalization, you need to make sure you're complying with regulations, insurance law, and other matters in case you are discovered.
But where large zones increase production efficiency, they also increase crop risk from disease or infestation spreading. When you consider the monetary value of your marijuana crop, and possibly the medical imperative of providing consistent medication to your patients, there is a reasonable tradeoff between production scale zones and isolation segmenting.
Zone segmentation can easily be achieved with inside gable walls and sidewalls, a properly designed greenhouse heating and cooling system and good environmental controls. Blackout curtains also known as light deprivation screens , irrigation, and fertigation systems are all designed by greenhouse industry experts to be centrally controlled for multiple zones. Geographic location. I cannot overstress the importance of this point.
Not all greenhouse manufacturers or cannabis growing consultants have experience in different geographical locations. Many people will try and sell you the greenhouse that has been successful in Colorado, but if you are in Southern California, Puerto Rico, or Alaska, the greenhouse you need is going to be very different. Your outside temperature fluctuations, wind speeds, humidity levels, snow loads, and light levels all factor into what equipment and the style of structure that is best for you and your crop. Inside greenhouse temperature. Cannabis like many crops likes different temperatures at different stages of growth.
Your greenhouse heating and cooling systems need to consider the temperature needs and controls for each zone. Managing humidity inside a cannabis greenhouse. We all know the effects humidity has on plants. Too much, and you invite disease, too little and you dry out the plant and hinder growth. As with any crop, knowing the humidity that the plant thrives in is important when designing a greenhouse. While cannabis in the vegetative stage actually likes a higher humidity level, it prefers lower humidity when in flower. Greenhouse manufacturers who understand this can help you build flexibility into your greenhouse designs.
There are several dehumidification units on the market, and for areas needing the ability to add humidity misting systems can be added into the greenhouse design. Ventilation recommendations for greenhouses tie into temperature and humidity needs. Greenhouse ventilation breaks down into two main categories: 1 natural ventilation covers roof vents, sidewall vents and rollup sides, and 2 forced air ventilation requires mechanical systems like exhaust fans, and sometimes cooling pads.
Please note that cooling pads are not a good option for high humidity regions. In addition to ventilation to remove hot air from inside the greenhouse, most greenhouse growers put airflow fans inside the greenhouse to circulate air movement which is good for keeping healthy plants.